Wednesday, 26 April 2017

Just Released | The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017 - Wastewater: The Untapped Resource

The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017 - Wastewater: The Untapped Resource
by WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme).  Paris, UNESCO, 2017, ISBN: 9789231002014.

Abstract: The 2017 edition of the United Nations WWDR, the forth in a series of annual, theme-oriented reports, addresses an often overlooked issue that is critical to water resources management and the provision of basic water-related services: wastewater. Maximizing wastewater's potential as a valuable and sustainable resource requires creation of enabling environment for change, including suitable legal and regulatory framework, appropriate financing mechanisms and social acceptance. With a political will to do so the current obstacles, such as lack of knowledge, capacity, data and information on wastewater, can be effectively overcome.

Summary: Most human activities that use water produce wastewater. As the overall demand for water grows, the quantity of wastewater produced and its overall pollution load are continuously increasing worldwide. Over 80% of the world's wastewater – and over 95% in some least developed countries – is released to the environment without treatment.
Once discharged into water bodies, wastewater is either diluted, transported downstream or infiltrates into aquifers, where it can affect the quality (and therefore the availability) of freshwater supplies. The ultimate destination of wastewater discharged into rivers and lakes is often the ocean with negative consequences for the marine environment.
The 2017 edition of the United Nations World Water Development Report, entitled "Wastewater: The Untapped Resource", demonstrates how improved wastewater management generates social, environmental and economic benefits essential for sustainable development and is essential to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
In particular, the Report seeks to inform decision-makers, government, civil society and private sector, about the importance of managing wastewater as an undervalued and sustainable source of water, energy, nutrients and other recoverable by-products, rather than something to be disposed of or a nuisance to be ignored.
The report's title reflects the critical role that wastewater is poised to play in the context of a circular economy, whereby economic development is balanced with the protection of natural resources and environmental sustainability, and where a cleaner and more sustainable economy has a positive effect on the water quality.
Improved wastewater management generates social, environmental and economic benefits, and is essential to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


Table of Content

Foreword | by Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO

Foreword | by Guy Ryder, Chair of UN-Water and Director-General of International Labour Organization

Preface | by Stefan Uhlenbrook, WWAP Coordinator and Richard Connor, Editor-in-Chief

Executive Summary

Prologue | State Of Water Resources: Availability and Quality

Part I Baseline and Context

Chapter 1 | Introduction | 1.1 Wastewater flows | 1.2 Wastewater as a resource: Seizing the opportunities

Chapter 2 | Wastewater and The Sustainable Development Agenda | 2.1 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development | 2.2 Potential synergies and conflicts

Chapter 3 | Governance | 3.1 Actors and roles | 3.2 Policy, law and regulation | 3.3 Financing | 3.4 Socio-cultural aspects

Chapter 4 | Technical Aspects Of Wastewater | 4.1 Wastewater sources and components | 4.2 Impacts of releasing untreated or inadequately treated wastewater | 4.3 Wastewater collection and treatment | 4.4 Data and information needs

Part II Thematic Focus

Chapter 5 | Municipal and Urban Wastewater | 5.1 Urbanization and its impact on wastewater production | 5.2 Urban forms | 5.3 Sources of wastewater in municipal and urban systems | 5.4 Composition of municipal and urban wastewater | 5.5 Urban form and the potential for municipal and urban wastewater use | 5.6 Managing urban runoff

Chapter 6 | Industry | 6.1 Extent of industrial wastewater generation | 6.2 Nature of industrial wastewater | 6.3 Addressing the resource challenge | 6.4 Wastewater and sustainable industrial development

Chapter 7 | Agriculture | 7.1 Agriculture as a source of water pollution | 7.2 Agriculture as a user of wastewater

Chapter 8 | Ecosystems | 8.1 The role and limits of ecosystems in wastewater management | 8.2 Planned use of wastewater for ecosystem services | 8.3 Operational and policy aspects

Part III Regional Aspects

Chapter 9 | Africa | 9.1 Water and wastewater in Sub-Saharan Africa | 9.2 Critical challenges | 9.3 The way forward

Chapter 10 | The Arab Region | 10.1 Context | 10.2 Challenges | 10.3 Responses

Chapter 11 | Asia and The Pacific | 11.1 Context and challenges | 11.2 Building resilient infrastructure | 11.3 A systems approach to wastewater by-product recovery | 11.4 Regulatory and capacity needs

Chapter 12 | Europe and North America | 12.1 Context | 12.2 Challenges | 12.3 Responses |

Chapter 13 | Latin America and The Caribbean | 13.1 The urban wastewater challenge | 13.2 Recent expansion of urban wastewater treatment | 13.3 Ongoing concerns and expanding opportunities | 13.4 Benefits of urban wastewater treatment | 13.5 Other sources of wastewater | 13.6 Lessons learned

Part IV Response Options

Chapter 14 | Preventing and Reducing Wastewater Generation and Pollution Loads At The Source | 14.1 Mechanisms for controlling and monitoring pollution | 14.2 Technical responses | 14.3 Financial approaches and behavioural change

Chapter 15 | Enhancing Wastewater Collection and Treatment | 15.1 Sewers and waterborne sanitation | 15.2 Low-cost sewerage | 15.3 Combined sewerage | 15.4 Decentralized treatment (DEWATS) | 15.5 Decentralized stormwater management | 15.6 Evolution of treatment technologies | 15.7 Sewer mining and component separation

Chapter 16 | Water Reuse and Resource Recovery | 16.1 Beneficial reuse of water | 16.2 Resource recovery from wastewater and biosolids | 16.3 Business models and economic approaches | 16.4 Minimizing risks to human health and the environment | 16.5 Regulations for water reuse | 16.6 Social acceptance of wastewater use

Chapter 17 | Knowledge, Innovation, Research and Capacity Development | 17.1 Trends in research and innovation | 17.2 Knowledge, research, technology and capacity-building gaps | 17.3 Future trends in wastewater management | 17.4 Capacity building, public awareness and collaboration among stakeholders |

Chapter 18 | Creating An Enabling Environment | 18.1 Technical options | 18.2 Legal and institutional frameworks | 18.3 Financing opportunities | 18.4 Enhancing knowledge and building capacity | 18.5 Mitigating human and environmental health risks | 18.6 Fostering social acceptance | 18.7 Coda



Friday, 21 April 2017

INDIGO Policy Brief: Science, Technology and Innovation, Comparative Analysis between EU-India and Other Countries: Indian Perspective | by V. V. Krishna & Rajiv Mishra, CSSP, JNU

Policy Brief: Science, Technology and Innovation, Comparative Analysis between EU-India and Other Countries: Indian Perspective
by V. V. Krishna with the assistance of Rajiv Mishra, CSSP, JNU.
INDIGO Policy, Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI), Austria, 2017.

Table of Contents
Introduction
1 Setting the context and background of the comparative analysis
2 Some comparisons between the EU multilateral and the non-EU bilateral cooperation from an Indian perspective
3 Gaps in comparative perspective of the EU multilateral and the non-EU bilateral Science and Technology cooperation
4 Comparative perspective on cooperation of Indian funding organisations with other countries
5 Gaps in comparative perspective of the EU funding and the non-EU countries funding mechanisms
6 Good practices of cooperation as seen from the Indian perspective | 6.1 India-United States S&T collaboration | 6.2 India-France S&T collaboration | 6.3 Indo-German S&T collaboration
7 Interviews with Indian funding organisations cooperating with Europe: Correlation with gaps analysis
8 Future of India-European Union Science and Technology cooperation: Key recommendations of comparative analysis


INDIGO Policy Brief: India Science and Technology Cooperation with EU and Other Select Countries | by V. V. Krishna & Rajiv Mishra, CSSP, JNU

Policy Brief: India Science and Technology Cooperation with EU and Other Select Countries
by V. V. Krishna with the assistance of Rajiv Mishra, CSSP, JNU.
INDIGO Policy, Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI), Austria, 2017.

Table of Contents
Introduction
1 EU-India Science, Technology and Innovation cooperation
2 India-US Science, Technology and Innovation cooperation
3 India-Japan Science, Technology and Innovation cooperation
4 India-Canada Science, Technology and Innovation cooperation
5 India-China Science, Technology and Innovation cooperation
6 Concluding summary



INDIGO Policy Brief: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy in India - Some Recent Changes | by V. V. Krishna, CSSP, JNU

Policy Brief: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy in India - Some Recent Changes
by V. V. Krishna, CSSP, JNU
INDIGO Policy, Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI), Austria, 2017.

Table of Contents
Foreword
Introduction
1 Some general features | 1.1 Structure of gross expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) | 1.2 Structure of S & T research system governance |  1.3 Main research performers | 1.4 Intermediary organisations |1.5 Cluster organisations | 1.6 Knowledge production
2 Methodology
3 Evolution of India's Science, Technology and Innovation policy | 3.1 Science, Technology and Innovation policy 2013
4 New government and current changes of STI 2015 | 4.1 National flagship programmes | 4.2 New Research and Innovation policies, schemes and instruments 2014–2015
5 Possible impacts on STI cooperation with Europe


IIED Working Paper "India's Peri-Urban Frontier: Rural-Urban Transformations and Food Security" | by F Marshall & P Randhawa

India's Peri-Urban Frontier: Rural-Urban Transformations and Food Security
by Fiona Marshall and Pritpal Randhawa
IIED Working Paper, 2017, ISBN 9781784313814.

Abstract: In India, peri-urban areas are too often neglected. Many people live in poverty and face increasing marginalisation and food insecurity. Yet peri-urban agriculture could be a major contributor to poverty alleviation and food security. This working paper examines rural-urban transformations in India in relation to changes in food production, access, consumption, nutritional quality and safety. To improve health and nutrition, a more holistic, food security-based perspective is needed. Policy and planning must support those fragile communities engaged in peri-urban agriculture while protecting the environmental services on which they depend. It also discusses examples of specific policies and programmes and considers knowledge gaps, governance challenges and mechanisms that might help facilitate pro-poor food security developments on the ground.


Tuesday, 18 April 2017

Call for Applications - DST Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy PostDoctoral Fellowships

DST Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy PostDoctoral Fellowships


Background and Motivation
Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) are now recognized as playing a significant role in advancing human, social, and economic development and meeting the aspirations of people and nations across the world. As a result, understanding STI processes and exploring ways to strengthen them is a major strand of intellectual activity, evinced by the explosion of literature on these topics in the last decade. At the same time, there are significant efforts to link this understanding to better policy making by a range of governmental agencies (both in developed and emerging economies) and inter-governmental organizations.
In recognition of importance and potential of STI in meeting India's developmental challenges through "acceleration of the pace of discovery and delivery of science-lead solutions for faster, sustainable and inclusive growth," the government launched the Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy in 2013. Department of Science and Technology (DST) recognized the importance of evidence-driven research and analysis in underpinning the effective achievement of the objectives of this policy and established DST Centers for Policy Research (CPRs) in various academic institutions across the country (Annexure-I). These centers are engaged in targeted research in number of key areas relevant to the country, train young scholars in STI policy research, and contribute towards better STI policy making by providing inputs to DST.
The role of suitable human resources is key to the success of STI policy research enterprise, perhaps even more than many traditional areas of research since intellectual engagement with this area ideally requires both understanding of the STI domain and processes, as well as policy research skills that draw on various strands of social sciences. Thus individuals with a background in natural science, medicine engineering or social science with a background of STI policy research are particularly suited for such research and, if trained appropriately, can bring a unique and important perspective to impending issues in this arena.

Fellowship Proposal
As the country is lagging behind in terms of critical mass and proper structure of policy research institution(s), on the recommendation of the Committee of Experts, Policy Research Cell of DST had announced in 2016 a DST-STI Policy Fellowship Programme at post-doctoral level to generate a critical mass of policy researchers. At present, there is no systematic formal pathway in the country to support such a professional transition, although personal experiences of many established STI policy researchers suggest that there is indeed a cohort of young graduates who have an interest in making such transition and contribute systematically to STI policy-making in the country. The fellowship programme was initiated with the broad objective of (a) enhancing human resources that can engage with and contribute to the STI policy domain and (b) strengthen the knowledge base, think tank, and evidence based policy making. The fellowship may provide an opportunity to develop the skills for young scientists and engineers who are interested in engagement with the STI policy domain and/or as STI policy researchers. This programme aims to attract and encourage top-quality researchers to work on the issues pertaining to STI policy and contribute their knowledge and analytical skills in the policy realm.

It is proposed to call for DST-STI Policy Fellowship- 2017 at POSTDOCTORAL Level. The Fellowship program would also provide an opportunity for policy-makers in various government departments /agencies to draw upon STI policy research expertise from this pool.
DST-STI POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW: The main objective of DST-STI Fellowship is to build up the cadre of academic STI policy researchers in the country, such that these Fellows may actively contribute in policy making in academia, research organizations, or even in government. The candidates who have received a Ph.D. (or equivalent) in natural science /medicine/engineering/ policy research/social science (with a background of STI policy research) within the last three years will be eligible to apply for the fellowship. Applicants must be capable of doing independent research work and have published at least 3 research papers in peer reviewed journals. At the time of application, applicant's age should be below 35 years. 
This will be a 2-year fellowship (with a possible extension of one more year, depending upon performance) where the recipient would be located in a DST-CPR (by mutual agreement) or in an active policy research group in academic/research institutions within the country to undertake STI policy research align to the research program of that CPR or mutually agreed with consent of DST-PRC and policy researchers/mentors in other than that of CPR. They also will build active linkages to a relevant government agency (either a scientific ministry or a line ministry with an S&T component), facilitated by DST itself and/or the DST-CPR. It is hoped that over a time, as policy makers realize the importance of such Fellows, they will be forthcoming to support such Fellows and even host them. In addition to undertaking research and policy engagement, there will be a set of activities – such as a seminar series or topical workshops – developed by the DST-CPRs (in consultation with DST) – that will further add value to the experience gained by Fellows and also build a community for them.

Eligibility
Science/medicine/engineering/ social science (with a background of STI policy) academic scholars, STI policy researchers, with good academic record and holding a Ph.D. degree (within the last three years) are eligible to apply. Applicants must be capable of doing independent research work and have published at least 3 research papers in peer reviewed journals. At the time of application, applicant's age should be below 35 years.

Application/Proposal
Applicants are required to submit following documents written in English:
  • Research Proposal: A proposal of maximum 5 pages on empirical research on STI policy issues, preferably, the issues pertaining to thematic areas of the candidates' desired DST-CPR and/or other Policy Research Group in academic/research institutions (proposal must be formulated though consultation with DST-CPR or active policy research group). The proposal must include: a) a STI related research title, b) a research objective, c) STI related Policy research background/ questions, d) research methodologies, and e) a research plan, including the evidence based outcome. 
  • Curriculum Vitae
  • Two recommendation letters.
The remuneration and terms and conditions will be guided as per applicable rules, of DST. The fellowship programme will be run by Policy Research Cell, DST. The duly constituted Review Committee comprising others scientific departments/ ministries representatives as well eminent policy makers, academicians will select the fellows, monitor the progress and make further review of the fellowship programme. 

Selection/Support
The duly constituted Review Committee will select candidates based on their research track record and the relevance, quality, and significance of their proposals. Once the Review Committee finalizes the selection, the program office (Policy Research Cell, DST) will notify a review result to selectees via e-mail. The selected Postdoctoral Fellows will be awarded a fellowship of Rs. 80,000/- (consolidated) in the level of INSPIRE Faculty. Based on the Committee's decision, an amount up to Rs. 200,000/- will be granted annually to the Postdoctoral Fellows to cover researchrelated costs and contingency.
Number Postdoctoral Fellowships: 8 (tentative and can be increased, decreased at the discretion of DST)
 
How to apply: Candidates are required to submit a copy of application in prescribed format available at DST website www.dst.gov.in. The envelope should be superscribed with "DST-STI-PFP Application 2017". The application should be sent to Dr. Akhilesh Mishra, Scientist D, Department of Science and Technology, Technology Bhawan, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi-110016 by speed post. A soft copy of proposal should also be mailed at akhilesh.mishra@nic.in. (Applicants may note that R&D related proposals will not be considered. Proposal must be on STI policy related issues) 

Last Date of Submission: 30th May, 2017. 

ANNEXURE -1
DST- Centres for Science Policy Research
  1. DST- Centre for Policy Research at IISc-Bangalore | Prof. T. A. Abinandanan, Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012 | Email:abinandanan@gmail.com abinand@materials.iisc.ernet.in.  | Thematic Areas of Policy Research:  1. Scientometric Analysis of Indian Institutions. 2. Research on Funding Patterns and Policies. 3. Methods of Assessing Multi-Dimensional Impact
  2. DST- Centre for Policy Research" at IIT-Delhi | Prof. Ambuj Sagar, Coordinator, DST- Centre for Policy Research at IIT-Delhi, Indian Institute of Technology Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110 016, Email: asagar@hss.iitd.ac.in. | Thematic Areas of Policy Research:  1. India's Innovation Mapping. 2. Technology Transfer. 3. Sectorial research study. 4. Benchmarking study reports
  3. DST- Centre for Policy Research in S&T Entrepreneurship "Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDII)" Gandhinagar | Prof. S. B. Sareen, Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDII), P.O. Bhat 382 428, Gandhinagar, Gujarat Email: sareen@ediindia.org. | Thematic Areas of Policy Research:  1. Understating ecosystem to promote and strengthen S&T Entrepreneurship. 2. Scan International Strategy to promote S&T based Entrepreneurship and integrating inclusive growth element. 3. Prospects and Constraints in Technology Commercialization by R&D Institutions in India: The Strategy Imperatives. 4. Maintaining data base of high technology entrepreneurs and preparing and publishing case studies of such entrepreneurs.
  4. DST- Centre for Policy Research" at Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow | Dr. Venkatesh Dutta, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Rae Bareily Road, Vidya Vihar, Lucknow – 226 025 (UP), Tel. (+091 522) 2440826/27, 2441515, 2551615, Fax:091-522-2440821, E-mail: dvenks@gmail.com, duttada@yahoo.co.in, Mob:+91-9918466778. | Thematic Areas of Policy Research:  1. Study of policies and mechanisms for delivery of STI outputs to diverse stakeholders including innovation for social inclusion with special reference to: Sustainable agriculture; Health; Energy; Water resource management and Climate governance. 2. Map STI effectiveness in bringing social inclusion. 
  5. DST- Centre for Policy Research" at Panjab University, Chandigarh | Prof. R Tewari, Coordinator, DST- Centre for Policy Research Panjab University, Sector 14, Chandigarh, UT- 160014, Email: rupinder@pu.ac.in, dstprc2014@pu.ac.in. | Thematic Areas of Policy Research:  1. Study of policies and mechanisms that could promote to enhance and expand private sector participation in STI activities including industry - academia - R&D collaboration. 2. Motivation and promotion of IP generation as a tool for enhanced Academia industry collaborations. 



Saturday, 1 April 2017

New Report | Better Business, Better World: The Report of the Business & Sustainable Development Commission

Better Business, Better World: The Report of the Business & Sustainable Development Commission

by Business & Sustainable Development Commission, 2017.

Summary
A call to action to business leaders to align with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This report shows how the next decade will be critical for companies to open 60 key market "hot spots", tackle social, environmental challenges, and re-build trust with society.

Table of Contents
The Commissioners | The Challenge
Executive Summary | The Business Case for the Global Goals | Leading for Sustainable development | Making the Choice
1. Introduction: The Global Goals and Why They Matter for Business
1.1 The Global Goals for Sustainable Development | 1.2 The Global Goals need business: business needs the Global Goals
2. Major Market Opportunities Opened up by Delivering the Global Goals 
2.1 The 60 fastest-growing sustainable market opportunities | 2.2 Opportunities by economic system | 2.3 Progress on all the Global Goals is needed to deliver all the benefits | 2.4 Pricing of externalities would increase the value of market opportunities | 2.5 Geographic distribution of opportunities | 2.6 The impact on jobs
3. Leading for Better Business and a Better World 
3.1 Sustainability is already good business | 3.2 Innovative businesses are already capturing Global Goals opportunities | 3.3 Transforming the way business operates for better business and a better world | 3.4 Gaining commitment from CEOs and boards | 3.5 Incorporating the Global Goals into business strategy | 3.6 Accelerating sectoral shifts to sustainable competition by working with peers | 3.7 Shaping public policy
4. Sustainable Finance
4.1 Simplifying reporting of environment, social and governance (ESG) performance | 4.2 Unlocking infrastructure investment | 4.3 Aligning regulation with investment 
5. Renewing the Social Contract
5.1 An uncertain outlook for employment | 5.2 Providing decent work and more jobs | 5.3 Providing training and skills | 5.4 Forging a new social contract | 5.5 Actions for business | 5.6 Actions for governments | 5.7 Actions for civil society | 
6. Conclusion 
6.1 Actions for sustainable business leaders | 6.2 Actions for the Commission